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Justin McMurdie Breaks Apps Into Micro-Services

Justin McMurdie chats with Kent about breaking your app into micro-services.

Most applications on the backend and the front end get built as a monolith, but you could improve your developer experience and performance if you broke your applications out into microservices.

The pros and cons are the same for monorepos and microservices. Microservices is a different paradigm. And so, there's a lot of training that goes involved for different people to understand the various deployment processes. The microservices system is slightly more complex in some ways, but on the pro side, you gain some performance benefits where you can scale up services by themselves.

A part of the improved developer experience is you get a better context of what you're working on. So say you need to fix a bug in the e-mail service. You don't have to dig through a mountain of code to find it. It's in the e-mail service.

Homework

  • Justing McMurdie

    Justing McMurdie


    Transcript

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Hello friends. This is your friend, Kent C. Dodds, and I'm super excited to be joined by my friend, Justin McMurdie. Say hi, Justin.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Hey.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Justin and I are actually one of the longer time friends that I've had in the tech community. Let's see, we go back to 2014-2015 ish? We went, not to school together, but in the same program. Yeah, I remember you in the program, so it was probably 2013 or somewhere around there.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, something like that. It's been a long time that we've known each other.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah, good times. And I convinced you to come work with me at Alianza three years ago, that was a good time.

    Justin McMurdie:
    It was great.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah. Really enjoyed that. Learned so much. It was such a cool place to work. But yeah, we've both been a couple other places since then. So it's been awhile. We've been keeping up and stuff, but the people listening don't know you at all, and that's such a shame. So Justin, can you tell us about yourself?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, of course. My name's Justin McMurdie. That is my Twitter handle. It's very original. I love Star Wars. I am a father, a spouse and open source software maintainer. Oh, I love technology. I love what we can do with it. I love the possibilities that it gives us.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Talking about myself is a little bit weird sometimes, but yeah, I think I'll lead with, I love Star Wars, and end with, I love Star Wars.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Very good, yeah. What did you think of the most recent reincarnations of Star... Well, not reincarnations, but the most recent Star Wars movies?

    Justin McMurdie:
    I liked things about all of them. I really, I go against the grain here. I really loved The Last Jedi, Episode Eight, and I really did not enjoy the final movie, but I found things that I enjoyed about all of them.

    Justin McMurdie:
    And one of the things I love about Star Wars is that no matter... Excuse me. It's very widely open to interpretation. Everyone can find something about it they enjoy, and there's strong opinions out there, and the fandom can get a little bit toxic.

    Justin McMurdie:
    But if you just respect other people's opinions and enjoy the talk about the parts you both enjoy, you can have a really good conversation with people, even if they liked a movie you hated, and vice versa.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Hmm. Yeah, yeah, very. Yeah. So I actually haven't seen the most recent Star Wars. I know it's terrible of me, but I do think that-

    Justin McMurdie:
    Actually, I think that's fine.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    I did hear that there was one scene where they're riding horses on the, out in space on the ship. Is that a thing? Is that real?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, it was. It was interesting.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    We don't have to get into that, but that was surprising to me. Anyway, we are not here to talk about Star Wars, although that would be an enjoyable subject. We're actually talking on Zoom, and we both have some Star Wars-related backgrounds, or space-related backgrounds, anyway, in our current quarantined circumstance.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    But yeah, so I wanted to talk with you about microservices for the front end. So what does that even... Just to give us a quick intro to maybe microservices in general, just the concept, and then, how does that even make sense for the front end? How, where does that apply?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, microservices is, I think, is really cool, but let's take it, just like you're saying, let's take a step back and discuss it as a topic. Most applications on the backend and on the front end are built as a monolith, so it's all in one project.

    Justin McMurdie:
    There's one, maybe it's a Web pack, maybe it's a rollout, maybe it's like MooTools, I don't know. There's one build, and at the end you have one bundle. And you might have code splits in there, and you deploy that one bundle to a CDN or an Artifactory, or however you host your website, and on the front end, and that is your application. And so, there's usually one git-repo that represents your entire application.

    Justin McMurdie:
    And the same is true on the backend. And that's where the term services comes from, because unlike the front end, we're not, they're not shipping code to the client, usually. They're running code on the backend that has to be available all the time.

    Justin McMurdie:
    The idea is to pay, excuse me, to pair down scope. So instead of having one service, one backend service that handles every request and does every single thing, you just break off chunks like, "Oh, this one handles updating users, and this one handles updating tasks, and this one handles sending e-mails." So, instead of having one service or a giant monolith, you have four or five, six, 20, a hundred microservices.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    And so, what's the benefit of splitting it up? I guess, let's talk about the costs and the benefits. Because nothing comes without tradeoffs, of course.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Absolutely.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    So what would, what are the trade offs that we need to consider, when we're thinking about splitting up our application into these microservices?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, so I traditionally have worked on the front end most of my career. And so, most of my perspective is going to be frontend-based, but I do have some experience on the backend. So I'll talk about mostly frontend, but backend as well.

    Justin McMurdie:
    So the pros and cons are the same on both sides. It's a different paradigm. And so, there's a lot of training that goes involved for different people to understand the different deployment processes. Their system is actually slightly more complex in some ways, but on the pro side, you gain some performance benefits where you can scale up services by themselves.

    Justin McMurdie:
    So for example, I mentioned like an e-mail service, let's say that was just a really heavy service. It had to do a lot of work. If everything was in one service, then I have to scale up to the, for the e-mail service, the entire thing.

    Justin McMurdie:
    So what if I actually don't need all those resources for everything else, but the e-mail service could be using up a lot of bandwidth or CPU cycles? If you, if I split that off into its own service, then I can scale it up independently, and you can actually lower your organization's overall costs, because you have a bunch of small services that consume smaller amounts of total power, smaller boxes in the Cloud, or even smaller physical hardware. And then my favorite benefit is actually nothing to do with cost. It's developer experience.

    Justin McMurdie:
    You have a better context of what you're working on. So hey, I need to make a, fix a bug in the e-mail service. I don't have to dig through a mountain of code to find it. It's in the e-mail service, I pull up the e-mail service, I need to start digging through it, fix the bug there.

    Justin McMurdie:
    I can deploy that, without deploying everything else. And so, I can get a fix out to production much faster, and depending on how your organization is set up for, continuous deployment or delivery and integration tests, those sorts of things.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah, that makes sense. And you download the code for a monolith, and you're like, "I don't even know where to start." But you download a, a singular serverless function or something, and it takes you 20 minutes to get through the entire code base, if that.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    So yeah, I can see how that could be really beneficial. What are some of the costs, from a maintainability standpoint, of the serverless... Or not serverless, but microservices? I use the term interchangeably by mistake, but they are often tied together pretty closely. But yeah, so, a microservices architecture. What are some of those, the costs associated to that kind of architecture?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, like I mentioned, very briefly earlier... In my mind, the biggest cost is training. It's a whole new design system. It's a different paradigm. And it comes with its own advantages and disadvantages. Monoliths are easier to understand in some ways. You have a single code base. I don't have messages firing somewhere that get responded to by a different service.

    Justin McMurdie:
    I'm trying to remember what it's called in the book that I just read about it. It's very much like a conductor, right? There's one system upfront. The same, this, "All right, now this, now this, now this, now this."

    Justin McMurdie:
    With microservices, I feel like the biggest con has to do with the maintenance of the design system. It's more complex. It's a different paradigm. You have to consider events being going, being responded to by another service. Or a monolith is actually in some ways simpler.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Your model that says, "Hey, I have, I have a conductor, like an orchestra, somebody upfront that's saying, 'Now do this, now do this, now do this.' And it's all visible to you, once you understand the code base."

    Justin McMurdie:
    With microservices, it's more like choreography. You have every individual piece, every person in the performance, knows what they need to do. They know when to respond to certain actions, and you don't need that person upfront saying, "Okay, now do this, now do this, now do this." So it's essentially, it's a choreography versus a conductor, is a simple way to break it down.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Right? Yeah. And it's just like everything, nothing comes without tradeoffs, and it depends on what types of tradeoffs that you want to make. And I find it, concerning may not be the right word, but that's the word I'm going to use, when people just write something off because of a familiarity issue.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    And so, like they say, "Well, I don't, I don't want to do this thing because the training costs, it's going to be hard, because nobody's familiar with this." Well, yeah. Okay. But we're constantly training people all the time. And you can train them in the old way of doing things or you can train them in the new way of doing things. You're going to train them either way. And so, let's set that aside as an equal cost either way.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Sure.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    And not to brush that off cause like familiarity does... If you need to get moving fast, then sure, go with what you're familiar with. But yeah, I guess I have more thoughts about that, but I want to move on. So yeah, so we talk about this in terms of backend, and it makes a lot of sense.

    Justin McMurdie:
    I understand it. It does get more complex on backend too. I mean, most of the time, in a modern tech stack, it's not just, I have 10 different servers running, it's, I have 10 different Docker images, and you have Kubernetes involved. And that's where I love having people who know way more about that than I do, and work with them, so I can get help. But-

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah, is there really any such thing as a full stack developer anymore? Because nobody knows the whole thing, at least not at scale.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, I totally agree.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah. It's remarkable how complex things have gotten. And also, at the same time how easy it is, relative to what it used to be, to build something of value and useful in the world today. Like, I could build a full app on my own, and because the platform as a service and different services that I could use, to fill in the gaps of my own knowledge, which I think is really quite cool.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    So talking about the frontend, because that's where I spend most of my time as, well. How does this microservice architecture apply to the frontend?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah. Microservices in the frontend is a relatively new concept. This is where I think we as frontend engineers haven't done a great job of learning from our peers. And we're, I mean, at the end of the day we're just solving problems. And we have peers who are doing it on servers, and we're doing it in browsers. We're working together to solve the problem, to build in a Web application or something else.

    Justin McMurdie:
    And I think overall we haven't done a great job at watching how the industry has moved to micro front ends. And there's a pendulum swing both ways. Some people are pushing microphones, or sorry, microservices, and some people are pushing monoliths. And there's pros and cons.

    Justin McMurdie:
    In the frontend, It's really new. Probably months ago, there was a disagreement on Twitter, massive Twitter thread about micro frontends. And I felt pretty great. I got a famous person to like one of my tweets.

    Justin McMurdie:
    But ultimately, it's all about trying to make things better in development, in shipping code, in maintaining code. And sometimes that requires a paradigm shift. So if your backend at your company is already on microservices, you sort of have this disconnect, right? Where I've got this community e-mail service, and I want to deploy a change in the frontend for e-mail code. Well, I have to deploy the whole frontend. Oh, I can't, because there's a bug that hasn't been fixed since our last build over in the contact area.

    Justin McMurdie:
    You can end up locked, and you are blocked by deployments. Where, with microservices in the frontend, you can create these whole silos. Like, I have an e-mail frontend, I have a e-mail backend, and I can deploy things as needed. Maybe I rewrite a whole frontend from one framework to another. As long as the API with the backend doesn't change, that's fine.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah. How does... So I'm thinking about this in the context of a large application, like the one I worked on at PayPal. And at PayPal, we had, I owned one app. And then there was another team that owned another app, and we linked between each other, but we were totally separate, completely different entirely. Like, the user clicks on this link, and it's a full page refresh to get them over to this other app.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Sure.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    They're downloading. Maybe they're downloading React, but it's a different version. Or even if it's the same version, they're just downloading it again, kind of covertly, because we're all totally different. And I can see how that could probably be improved. So is that the kind of thing that that can be solved by using it, like being intentional?

    Kent C. Dodds:
    So I guess what I'm saying is, we sort of had a microservice frontend architecture, but it wasn't implemented well. Because we had these different parts of the overall PayPal.com app that were, each route was handled by a completely different app. But because it wasn't intentionally designed as a microservice frontend, we ended up giving the user a less positive experience. And so, I guess that, my question's building up to an assumption that this is the type of problem that microservices in the front end is intended to solve.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, absolutely. What you're talking about is essentially an integration layer. So you need a little bit of client side code that's like, "Hey, when I'm at this route, show this application, when I'm at that route, show that application." And I actually work on an open source project that that provides a lot of that for the people for free. But I want to talk about it generally before I plug.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah, yeah, yeah, fair enough. No worries.

    Justin McMurdie:
    But yeah, it's an integration layer is what you're missing there. And that could prevent those full page reloads, and give your users a better experience.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Right.

    Justin McMurdie:
    And you can have lazy loading within the applications, which I assume you already had. You could say, "Hey, only load React once and it's the same version." You could, "Hey, only load my design system, my CSS, my shared component library, once." And it's the same for both applications.

    Justin McMurdie:
    So it does, that's why, when I talk about additional complexity, that's exactly the sort of thing I'm talking about. You have different teams that have to coordinate at a higher level, but the end result is a better experience for users, a better experience for developers, and a better experience for DevOps, or even just deployments in general, and QA.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Right, yeah. And that makes sense. So if we wanted to, if, saying at PayPal, we've got these two apps and we're like, "Users are going back and forth between our apps, we've got to solve this, so let's just make, we've got to make it so they're not downloading React twice. They're not downloading our component library and all this stuff twice. So let's just put all of our stuff together and we'll just, all in one repo, we'll deploy it together and everything."

    Kent C. Dodds:
    And so, then our developer experience is shortchanged big time, in favor of the user experience. And so what you're saying is, we can solve that same problem, without losing that improved developer experience by saying, "Okay, well we're going to trade a little bit of our developer experience by saying, 'Now we have to coordinate what versions of stuff we're using, but we'll be able to keep ourselves in our separate repositories.'"

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Or I suppose this could probably even work in a monorepo, but in any case, that we'd be able to just work in our own section of the app without causing the problems for our users. So actually that question, or that thought process, made me think of a question.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Is part of the goal of this microservices intended to make it possible for you to have separate repos? Or is that a separate goal?

    Justin McMurdie:
    That's a separate goal. We offer, me and the rest of the maintainers of the single spot of projects that I work on, get that question a lot. Like, "Can I do this in a monorepo, can I do this in individual repos?" And what we found is that most people actually prefer having dozens of small repos than a monorepo, but it'll work either way.

    Justin McMurdie:
    I mean, the end goal is independent deployability. I want to make a change in one area and deploy it, and not have to coordinate with anyone else. I don't want to have to deploy everything just to make a small change.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Got you. Yeah, very cool. And that also means that, yeah, I guess that that's the ultimate goal. And then how you want to implement where the repo is. Where the code lives for each one of these is irrelevant. Very cool.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, I would agree.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah, that's interesting. So does this mean that, at single-spa, since we're kind of getting into that here, or any implementation of a microservice frontend architecture, like any library, is basically like a router. And that's pretty much all it does? Or is there more to it than just being a router?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Conceptually, I think it's easiest to think of single-spa and other frontend in the browser integration layers as a simple router, or a higher level router. I don't want to confuse that with higher level components, but I'm routing between applications, rather than I'm routing between components. And I know that an application is really just a component. So in the end, it's not that much different.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Sure.

    Justin McMurdie:
    But you can, you could even take that a step further, which is originally why single-spa was developed, saying... Hey, we let me back up there.

    Justin McMurdie:
    We had a problem at Canopy, where single-spa was developed. We had an Angular JS monolithic application. And that application did everything, and we needed to migrate it to React. So there's lots of different ways we could have accomplished that.

    Justin McMurdie:
    We could have used NgReact to let Angular render React components, but ultimately then, Angular still controls the routes. And at that point it becomes very difficult to get rid of Angular JS entirely without a larger scale rewrite.

    Justin McMurdie:
    So you get some of that developer experience, but not all of it. And honestly, adapters are pretty big, like bundle size.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Right.

    Justin McMurdie:
    And you have to rewrite anything anyways. So instead of saying, "Oh, I'll migrate this as a whole," which I've personally never seen work really well.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah.

    Justin McMurdie:
    You just sort of take a hammer to your existing thing and break it up into chunks. And then you carve section, or you carve boxes around that chunks, based on routes, and you say, "Hey, this is this application, this application, that application." And you migrate those applications without routers, and you just said, or without... Sorry, not without routers, without an adapter.

    Justin McMurdie:
    You migrate those applications without an adapter. And then they're small enough, you can migrate them, sort of that, not a big bang, but a big bang migration, but a small bang migration.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah. Bigger than a one day bang, normally.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, [crosstalk 00:21:56].

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Okay. Yeah, that makes sense. So, I'm just trying to think how this is much different from if I were deciding, "Hey, I want to switch from Angular JS to React. I'm going to build my own router with the history module. And then I'll just use code splitting for everything, and then load this bundle or that bundle." Is that basically what single-spa does? Or does it offer more than just doing that?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah. It's basically what it does. I think it offers more than that, because we've done it in production for five, or four and a half, five years now. So we've developed best practices to help accomplish those things.

    Justin McMurdie:
    So one of the tools that we use is a tool called SystemJS. And that's an open source polyfill for a proposed browser specification, which is a mouthful. But that lets you asynchronously load modules, and you can combine that with single-spa, which is that top level router, just like you said.

    Justin McMurdie:
    And you could load whole applications at runtime in the browser dynamically. So I could just define, "Hey, here's a list of all the possible applications," and load them when you need to, and they know everything they need to know. And these are the routes that they should be active. And that's all I have to tell single-spa.

    Justin McMurdie:
    And then I have the supercharging power of SystemJS to load those bundles. So yes, that's the long, that's a long way for me to say yes. That's essentially what it is.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Got you. So I'm curious about the ability to share versions of React, and share other modules like that. So say we have a design system, a CSS library, or even a React component library. How do I instruct single-spa and my applications that these two applications use the same version of a given dependency? What do I need to change in my apps? And what do I need to tell single-spa about that? Or do I?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, that's where, that's actually where SystemJS comes in. Because SystemJS is that asynchronous module loader, it also has a module registry, so that when you load a module, you can get it from the module registry. It just caches it. And that offer, it's like a Singleton module, so there will only ever be one version of React.

    Justin McMurdie:
    And so, you have, you load React with SystemJS. And then you, when you build your projects, whether you're using Webpack or MooTools or roll up, you say, "Hey, don't include React."

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Got it.

    Justin McMurdie:
    And then, when SystemJS loads your bundle, it will give your bundle React.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    That makes total sense. Total sense. So here in the last few minutes, I want to give you a chance to convince me to not build my own single-spa, and why should people... It sounds to me like this is something worthy of investigating for it, especially for any team that has multiple projects, and especially companies like PayPal, where you're doing a full page redirect over two to one separate app, where it'd be a lot nicer for users to be able to just link directly to it, and a client side routing kind of thing. So why, for people in that situation, why should they give single-spa any attention?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, versus building it themselves, is that correct?

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah, yeah, versus building themselves.

    Justin McMurdie:
    I think that's a really great question too. It's hard for me to say, "Don't build it yourself," because we built it ourselves. But my argument for why you shouldn't is that right now, you have a battle tested, been in production for five years applicant framework, essentially, that lets you build micro frontends. There's a large community behind it, there's several thousand stars on GitHub, and that alone should sell you.

    Justin McMurdie:
    It has an active community and maintainers. It Has a bunch of dev tools we've built for it. We even built a CLI to help you get started, so you could just say, create single-spa React. And you're going to create a React app, a single-spa application, which is really just a React application with a slightly different Webpack config.

    Justin McMurdie:
    And so for me, I say, don't build it yourself because we've already done so much of the hard work. How do you do, handle hash routing versus browser HTML5 pushState routing? How do you prevent applications from being active? How do you unmount applications? What if applications are written in different frameworks?

    Justin McMurdie:
    We've solved all of those problems multiple times. And we have a battle tested library with good unit tests, and that, with an active community behind it. I think it'd be equivalent saying, "Why shouldn't I build my own Webpack?" Maybe not quite as big, definitely not quite as big, but don't build your own Webpack, because it's hard to build, and it takes a lot of time and energy and resources.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Don't build your own single-spa. There's already one out there, and we would love for you to come help us make it even better. We're looking for open source contributors all the time. We get people from the community jumping in to help solve issues, add features.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, don't build your own. Use ours and help us make ours better, and then everyone get... The rising tide can lift everyone's applications.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah, very good. Yeah, I think that's a compelling argument for sure.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    So yeah, Justin, you also, just in this last little bit, you also co-organize a conference that's near and dear to my heart. It's also near and dear to my home, so I liked it especially much.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    It's Utah JS Conf. It's actually, I don't know if you know this, but this is, the first conference I ever spoke at was Utah JS Conf, and yeah, just awesome. And actually Utah JS also has meetups and stuff. That was the first place I ever spoke, period, was at a Utah JS meetup.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    So why don't you tell us about Utah Jazz Conf 2020? And yeah, what are your plans here?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, Utah JS 2020 is shaping up to be a really awesome conference. We actually have our call for papers open now, and that's going to stay open, oh, until the end of April, I believe. But the conference itself was on Friday, September 18th. We're really excited about it. We're holding it at The Jordan Commons Movie Theater again. It's worked out really well.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    That's an awesome venue. I actually really liked that venue, it's kind of fun.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah. Honestly, the week, you get the tumblers, you have free soda and everyone's just hyped up on caffeine and jittery the whole time. It's great. But I've had a lot of fun working on Utah JS Conference. It's a nonprofit.

    Justin McMurdie:
    So our tickets relative to other conferences are much cheaper. And we get a lot of awesome speakers who are willing to, some cases, even waive their speaking fees because we're a nonprofit. And the revenue that we make, which isn't much from the conference itself, we turn around to use for the meetups. And so that's where the funding from the meetups comes from.

    Justin McMurdie:
    We don't have our final ticket price this year yet, but when we open up our ticket sales in the, probably sometime after CFP closes, when we know a little bit more about what social distancing looks like in September, we're really excited about it. It's been fun to work on, and I'm excited to see what cool proposals come up this year.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Yeah, I'm excited to go. And I hope that I don't have to stand six feet away from you, because I always like giving me a big hug. But yeah, Justin, is there anything else that you want to bring up, before we wrap things up here?

    Justin McMurdie:
    Microservices has pros and cons, just like everything. I think the cons of microservices are way outweighed by the pros. That's a weird way to say that, but I think that the pros of microservices give you more than the cons cost you.

    Justin McMurdie:
    I encourage everyone to check out microservices, generally, on the backend and on the front end. Recognize that at not every organization it's going to be a great fit for. It really depends on your team structure, or your application structure, and the cost that you're willing to absorb to get those great experiences.

    Justin McMurdie:
    So consider microservices, check out some documentation, generally there's books available. Check out single-spa specifically. The website is single-spa.js.org. We've got an intro video there that's pretty great, should give you a high level overview. It even has some amazing animations, so...

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Sweet. Awesome. Hey, thank you so much, and that is our call to action. Our homework for you all listening, to check out that single-spa intro video. It is only one minute and 56 seconds long. So if you don't do it, then you are super lazy. No, just kidding.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    But everybody should have enough time to take a look at that and enjoy those cool animations Justin's talking about. And yeah, thanks so much for coming on, Justin. It's always a pleasure to catch up with you and chat.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    And I hope everything goes well with you these next few months in getting ready for Utah JS. And yeah, hope to see people around at the conference in a few months.

    Justin McMurdie:
    Yeah, I'm excited for the conference. It's always good, it's always fun to watch, and I'm excited to see you there.

    Kent C. Dodds:
    Awesome. Thanks so much, Justin. We'll see you all later.

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