This site runs best with JavaScript enabled.

Application State Management

February 26, 2018

Some approaches to solving one of the most complex problems in software.

Current Available Translations:

One of the hardest parts of software development is managing state. Life could be so simple if the user couldn't interact with the application at all, but that sounds like a 90s website and most of us are building interactive applications, so we've got to put state somewhere.

Because state is so complicated and use cases differ so greatly across different applications, there are TONS of ways to manage application state. They each are intended to solve some specific problems with managing state and as is true of any abstraction, they add a level of complexity to the application in exchange for relieving the pains of those problems.

The key to knowing which abstractions to use is understanding the cost and benefit of the abstraction. To understand the benefit, you have to understand the problems it's intended to solve and how it goes about solving those problems relative to other options. In this newsletter I want to share with you some of the abstractions I've tried and like. This is not at all comprehensive and it will be pretty basic because I'm not writing you a book right now ๐Ÿ˜‰.

I'm going to organize this in the same way you should consider adding these abstractions to your application as it grows in size/complexity. It's important to not add an abstraction too early, otherwise the cost you're paying is greater than the benefit the abstraction can add.

Also, this is pretty react-specific, but hopefully the general ideas translate well to other frameworks.

Component state

This is where you start. It's really likely that you'll use setState somewhere in your application if it's at all interactive. I feel like React's component state API is severely under-appreciated and under-used. It's an incredibly simple API and doesn't add much complexity to your application at all.

For learning/reviewing your knowledge about this, I recommend watching this 7 minute (free) video: "Use Component State with React". Then give the official docs about lifting state up a look!

I seriously recommend seeing how far you can get with this API before continuing further. It's super powerful on its own.

Where things start to break down with component state is when you bump into problems with "prop drilling." Learn more about this here:

Prop Drilling

JavaScript Module (Singleton)

If you're unfamiliar with the singleton pattern, don't worry, in JavaScript it's pretty straightforward. It's basically just state that you have inside a module. Here's a simple implementation of this pattern in JS:

1const state = {}
3const getState = () => state
4const setState = newState => Object.assign(state, newState)
6export {getState, setState}

One reason you might decide to move on from component state is when you start feeling some pain from "the prop-drilling problem". This is that as your React application grows, the "component tree" also grows meaning that as you lift state up the tree to have it shared across the application, it can become a real chore to get state to the parts of the tree it needs to be and handlers for updating that state.

The singleton pattern is a pretty ok option because it allows you to import the state using regular JS modules. So rather than drilling props down to the components that need them, the components themselves can import the module and get the state they need.

This comes with a serious limitation however, and that is when you attempt to update the state in the singleton, the components need to be made aware of the update so they'll re-render themselves. This requires a bit more effort to implement (you basically need to implement a simple event emitter), but it's not terribly challenging, and there are libraries to help with this as well (no, I don't have a favorite off the top of my head), so a singleton in this way is still not a bad option. That is, unless you're trying to do server-side rendering (which most of you probably aren't so....)...


The new Context API in React is super duper awesome. If you haven't read my post about that yet, give it a look:

React's โš›๏ธ new Context API

React context allows you to overcome the prop-drilling problem and the update issues with a singleton with a simple built-in API. With this API you can pretty easily make state accessible anywhere in the tree using the <ContextInstance.Provider /> and <ContextInstance.Consumer /> components without much difficulty.

Honestly, because the new context API is so simple, there aren't a ton of situations where a singleton would be a whole lot more simple. This is awesome news because it means that React (which solved the component state problem so well with setState) could now be solving the application state problem in a great way with createContext.


James Kyle created a new library for state management that utilizes the new context API. I'm pretty sure this is my new go-to for any non-trivial app that needs to share state across the application. I like it because it's not a whole lot more on top of context, it's a small library, and it very cleanly separates state containers and presentational components in a way that makes everything easier to test and think about.


The problem redux is intended to solve was to make flux more palatable. The problem flux is intended to solve is predictable state flow, improved state debuggability, and simplify the calculation of derived data across stores. It does this through a clean separation of concerns and unidirectional data flow.

Redux seriously simplified things and basically ended the "flux wars" of 2015. It still allows you the benefits of flux, without a lot of the boilerplate of the original abstractions. There is a strong place and use case for redux-based state management and I'm so glad that it's here to help solve problems in application state management. It's really helped a lot of people!

That said, it does add a significant amount of complexity to any app that implements it. It forces a layer of indirection on your application that can make following complex user interactions and state updates a real challenge. If you've ever jumped in a project and had to follow the flow of dispatches/action creators/reducers all the while searching for the action type name and opening a half dozen or more files, you know what I'm talking about.

I think a reason that so many applications use and embrace redux is because it incidentally solves the prop-drilling problem with the connect higher order component that react-redux gives you. The prop-drilling problem is a pain that even relatively small applications face, so they reach for redux to solve that problem without realizing that there are several other much simpler alternatives.

When you choose redux to solve the prop-drilling problem, you're bringing in a cost that is intended to solve problems you don't have and hence the cost is greater than theย benefit.

Try other solutions first. And limit the amount of state in you store in redux to only the state that needs to be at that level of the tree (probably the root if you're a typical redux user). Here are some wise words from Cory House about using redux prematurely/for everything:


There are SO many other abstractions and patterns you could implement, but it's getting late and I don't have all year to write about them all ๐Ÿ˜‰

I should emphasize that state should exist and be stored as close to where it's needed as possible. In practical terms, this means that you do NOT need to store a form input's error state in the global store unless it's absolutely necessary (which it very likely is not). This means that you will very likely be using component state in your application. You may want to use context or singletons somewhere within your application. Even in a small sub-section of the tree this could be useful. Good luck! ๐Ÿ‘

Things to not miss:

Discuss on Twitter โ€ข Edit post on GitHub

Share article
Kent C. Dodds

Kent C. Dodds is a JavaScript software engineer and teacher. He's taught hundreds of thousands of people how to make the world a better place with quality software development tools and practices. He lives with his wife and four kids in Utah.