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Don't Solve Problems, Eliminate Them

Software Engineer, React Training, Testing JavaScript Training

Photo by Jordan Whitt

How eliminating problems can drastically simplify your codebases and life

Humans are natural problem solvers. The fact that we've survived as long as a species as we have is evidence of that.

Humans are also natural problem seekers. Let that one sink in. You know it's true. And I'm not talking about those people. I'm talking about you and me too. It's tough and takes intentionality to avoid. We just spend so much time solving problems, that we naturally seek problems to solve, even if we don't have those problems right now.

Photo of a Violin by Providence Doucet

As an example, one of my sisters reached out to me asking if I could help her build an app that basically combined the capabilities of Zoom, Tito, and Google Calendar to enable out-of-work musicians (due to the pandemic) to teach their skills remotely. She was seeking problems to solve before having the problems first.

Instead of helping her build solutions to problems she didn't have yet, I encouraged her to simply use Zoom, Tito, and Google Calendar to get this idea off the ground, and then when those tools fell short, that would be a problem which she would be more equipped to solve because she would have actual experience with the problem and therefore have more context with which to solve the problem.

Ultimately she didn't pursue the idea. It's good that she didn't decide to solve the problems she didn't have before she decided to move on from the idea. I wish I could say I've never made that mistake myself. How many times have I written a test for code I ended up deleting before it even got committed 🤦‍♂️

Avoiding problems is better than solving them. Don't try to solve problems you don't have yet. I'm not saying don't plan ahead. You can avoid solving problems you don't have without painting yourself in a corner.

Unavoidable problems

Even though avoiding a problem is best, sometimes you can't avoid a problem. What then?

Humans should be problem eliminators. This is unnatural and takes extra effort. When faced with a problem, humans naturally start thinking of solutions to the problem. And when we solve it, we feel good about ourselves, but we've unwittingly made ourselves captive to the maintenance of our solution.

However, if someone can take a step back and eliminate the problem instead of solving it, they'll find themselves in an excellent position and freed up to focus on tasks other than maintaining solutions. And often problems are eliminated for folks who use what they produce as well.

At first glance, problem solving and problem eliminating seem like the same thing. So to be clear, here's the difference: When you solve a problem, you have a solution you have to maintain. When you eliminate a problem you don't even have to think about it because the problem no longer exists.

Let's consider a few examples.

Real life problem elimination

Tesla Model S driving fast with mountains in the background

Tesla is a great example of this. By going all electric, they've eliminated countless parts and processes that have been industry norm over hundreds of years. This has freed them to focus on other problems that they introduced with their alternative approach.

And as an EV owner, switching from gas to electric allows me to eliminate problems like "where do I get an oil change" or worries that the transmission will blow and only very rarely (if ever) that I'll need new brake pads, etc etc etc. (EVs require very little maintenance because there are just so fewer parts that can wear out and break).

Screenshot of a tesla livestream showing the model y giga casting machine with the words "40% rear underbody cost savings" and "-79 parts per car"

A more recent innovation of Tesla is the use of the "Gigapress" which allows them to make a single-piece casting of the entire back and front of the vehicle. This eliminates the need for dozens of robots to bolt and weld dozens of parts together.

Tesla is a fantastic example of problem elimination. Very interesting case study for anyone interested in manufacturing at a huge scale. Problem elimination is key to their success.

Coding problem elimination

Most of you reading probably don't manufacture at scale. You're building apps. So what are some code-related examples of problem elimination?

React logo

Years ago, to create a React component, we created a class that extends React.Component. We would add methods for different lifecycle events we wanted to handle. This worked well for years, but a big sticking point was code reuse. A given "concern" (or feature) could have code spread across any or all of constructor, componentDidMount, componentDidUpdate, componentWillUnmount, and render. Creating reusable abstractions that required code in each of those lifecycles was a challenge.

The React team and community came up with ideas like "Higher Order Components" and "Render Props" to solve these problems. For a long time this seemed like a pretty good solution. There were rough edges (nesting and false hierarchy issues with render props or terrible typing support and prop indirection/clashes for HOCs), but we'd pretty much gotten used to these problems as a community and the solution worked pretty well.

Then the React team changed the game entirely and introduced hooks. With hooks, code reuse is trivial and obvious. You share code with React hooks the same way you share regular JavaScript code: make a function. They completely eliminated the problem and we no longer feel the pain that led us to HOCs or render props except for very specific scenarios.

As another quick example: early in the React world, the only officially supported way to get state and functions from one place to another in React is to pass props. This led to "prop drilling" where you have to pipe props through components all over your app. This was a huge pain. There was a note in the docs about a "context" API that existed, but its use was strongly discouraged directly in the docs.

Then redux came on the scene and solved prop drilling (among other things) and people jumped on it quick. Redux actually used the context API, but because it was hidden behind a library people weren't worried about the warning in the docs (most didn't even know they were indirectly using context).

However, when context became official, and when hooks made it much easier to use, many people found that the primary problem for which they were using redux (getting state around their app) had been eliminated with a built-in approach, and dropped redux in favor of the new approach.

(To be clear, there are other reasons people use redux, but in days before official context, this was the primary pain that drove people to redux).

Remix logo

Remix is another great example of a problem eliminator. They've taken a completely different approach to building applications with React and eliminated a bunch of problems in the process.

People coming from other metaframeworks very quickly fall in love with the built-in support for nested routing. Among other things, this eliminates the problem of shared layout components. If you know the frustration, you understand what I mean. If you don't... lucky you.

Because Remix exposes a direct API to the response cache headers, you can have all the primary benefits of static site generators with no need to do "intelligent" incremental rebuilds (which is an enormously complex solution to a real problem faced by the SSG approach).

Because of the way Remix allows you to load your data in a loader function in the same file as your component, the problem of data over fetching is eliminated (you just filter out what you don't need in the loader so you only send what's needed over the wire) and a big problem that drives people to graphql clients is eliminated (to be clear, Remix works with graphql, you just don't have to use a complex client-side graphql client with Remix to avoid over fetching). Remix also only fetches the data for the changed layouts on a page transition (something you can only really do with nested routing), further eliminating the over fetching problem.

Because Remix supports <form> directly, you don't have to worry about the song-and-dance of form state management and submission. And to get the same benefits with client-side routing, it exposes a <Form> component that emulates the same experience without a full-page refresh.

Because Remix automatically re-calls your loaders on mutations, you don't need to worry about cache invalidation.

Because Remix allows you to specify the link tags included on a route-by-route basis, you don't need to worry about changes of CSS on one page impacting those on another page. That problem has been completely eliminated and now maybe you'll think twice before reaching to a CSS-in-JS library to solve that problem. Because it just doesn't exist when using Remix.

Because Remix is a progressive-enhancement focused framework, you don't need to worry about whether your app will work on an unreliable network where the JS fails to load for some reason.

Because Remix is built on top of web-based APIs primarily, they've eliminated over half of the documentation they would otherwise need to write because they can just point you to MDN. And they've eliminated the problem of transferrable skills for us as users because the better we get at Remix, the better we get at building websites without it too.


By now you've probably had this thought at least once: "But Kent... They may have eliminated some problems, but they introduced some new ones!" Yes, this is what we call trade-offs and they're impossible to avoid. Even inaction (the most efficient problem elimination technique) has trade-offs.

EVs may not have the maintenance headaches of traditional ICE vehicles, but they also don't charge as quickly as you can gas up a traditional car and you can't just carry a gas can around with you just in case.

React hooks drastically simplified code reuse, but now you've got to learn about value identity and memoization is when building those abstractions (though, often by putting things inside the useEffect, we can eliminate that problem).

The ultimate goal is that the new problems you have to face are easier/cheaper to solve than the ones you had before.

Eliminate big problems in exchange for smaller problems.


There are countless examples of problem elimination throughout history and in every industry that have taken our world to new heights.

I want to encourage us all to embrace the problem solving of humanity. I also want us to be mindful, take a step back, and ask ourselves whether we're solving the right problems. Are we just solving problems we created from the solution to other problems? Is it possible to eliminate those first problems so we don't have to solve the problems our solution created?

Start by not seeking problems. If you really do have a problem, first try to eliminate it if you can, and only solve it if you're sure you can't.

The biggest challenge is making sure that our elimination of problems don't create bigger problems. But when you can do that, you can drastically improve things for yourself and everyone who enjoys what you've created as well. Take chances, make mistakes, and eliminate problems!

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Kent C. Dodds

Kent C. Dodds is a JavaScript software engineer and teacher. He's taught hundreds of thousands of people how to make the world a better place with quality software development tools and practices. He lives with his wife and four kids in Utah.

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